Febr. Die Ukraine, die Türkei und Aserbaidschan wollen ein neues Bündnis ins Leben rufen. Das teilte der aserbaidschanische Botschafter in der. 3. Apr. Die türkische Regierung will Aserbaidschan im Konflikt mit Armenien um das Grenzgebiet Berg-Karabach unterstützen. Die Regierung in Baku. Febr. Die Beziehungen zwischen der Türkei und Aserbaidschan. Test transmissions started on TRT 1 on 31 January Retrieved 22 December The young Turkish artists www lottozahlen 6 aus 49 to Europe in came back inspired by contemporary trends such as Fauvism, Cubism and even Expressionism, still very influential in Europe. Cannabis Cannabis sativa is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, pokerstars kings casino includes marijuana pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefertetrahydroca. This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the centroid or center point of a country expressed in degrees and minutes; wild west casino online is based on the locations provided in the Geographic Names Server GNSmaintained by the Goldmedaillen olympia 2019 Geospatial-Intelligence Agency on behalf of the US Board on Geographic Names. Istanbul formerly Constantinopleone of mut englisch übersetzung great historic cities of the world, sits near the Bosporus kostenlose kartenspiele download to the Eishockey deutschland österreich of Marmara. B 4 November Selected International Environmental Agreements D: Crowleysaid that the United States had "broad concerns about trends involving intimidation of journalists in Turkey. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.
An aggressive privatization program also reduced state involvement in basic industry, banking, transport, power generation, and communication.
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The city, on the west coast of Asia Minor, was originally Greek, but later became part of the Roman Empire. In Roman times it had a population estimated between and thousand, making it one of the largest cities in the Mediterranean world.
Ephesus was partially destroyed by an earthquake in A. Factbook photos - obtained from a variety of sources - are in the public domain and are copyright free.
View of the main road in Ephesus, which still bears the marks of chariot wheels. The Library of Celsus may be seen at the foot of the hill.
The background is the site of the silted up harbor. Its fortunes declined because of invasions, earthquakes, and the silting up of its harbor.
It was abandoned in the 15th century. The Library of Celsus in Ephesus was built between A. The library held 1, scrolls and was built facing east to make the best use of morning light; it was destroyed by an earthquake in A.
The facade was reconstructed between to Ruins of the public bath in Ephesus. The city had several bath complexes erected by the Romans in different part of the city.
Its aqueduct system was one of the most complex in the ancient world with multiple aqueducts of different sizes supporting various functions.
The public toilets in Ephesus were located in the public baths and had running water. Servants were often employed as seat warmers before the patrons used the cold stone seats.
An inscription on a wall reads: The Great Theater in Ephesus was based on an original Greek structure. In the Roman period, it was expanded under the reigns of Domitian A.
While generally used for theatrical performances and public assemblies, it was also used for gladiatorial contests in the later imperial period.
Seating estimates for the Great Roman Theater in Ephesus vary between 25, and 44, Regardless of actual capacity, the theater was in continuous use until the 5th century A.
According to tradition, Saint Paul preached against paganism at this site. Today, partially restored, it is used for an annual festival of culture and art.
Ruins of the Temple of Hadrian in Ephesus. The temple dates to the 2nd century A. The structure has been partially reconstructed from surviving architectural fragments.
Terrace homes in Ephesus built on a hill opposite the Temple of Hadrian. The wealthy families lived here in six multi-family homes built on three terraces.
Most homes were highly decorated and were heated by use of hot water flowing through pipes in the floors and walls.
The roof of one house formed the patio or terrace of the house above it. Work on restoring the houses began in The wealthy families lived in six multi-family homes built on three terraces.
Most homes were highly decorated; they were heated by use of hot water flowing through pipes in the floors and walls. Floor mosaic in a terrace home in Ephesus built on a hill opposite the Temple of Hadrian.
View of the port of Kusadasi on the Aegean Sea. The name Kusadasi means "Bird Island. Its current name was officially adopted at the beginning of the 20th century by Turkish authorities.
Kusadasi is the gateway to the Roman ruins at Ephesus. Some 95 km 57 mi south of Izmir, it has grown since the late s from a fishing village into a major tourist center serving thousands of tourists.
A statue of Kemal Ataturk, the first president of Turkey and the founder of the Turkish Republic, stands on a hill overlooking the city.
View of apartment buildings in the resort town of Kusadasi on the Aegean Sea. The population of the town increases from 65, to , during the tourist season.
Kusadasi is about a minute drive from the Roman ruins at Ephesus. Pigeon Island Guvercin Adasi in the harbor of Kusadasi. The island is connected to the mainland by a causeway.
The fortress dates from the 14th and 15th centuries. In , the castle was rebuilt and the garrison expanded.
The island became the focus of the town to the extent that people began referring to the whole town as Kusadasi Bird Island. Swirls of color ranging from deep olive green to bright turquoise were created by a massive phytoplankton bloom that covered the entire surface of the Black Sea on this image taken 20 June Northern Turkey makes up the southern shore of the sea.
Photo courtesy of NASA. The Bosporus near the center of the photograph , a strait that connects the Black Sea to the north with the Sea of Marmara to the south, stands out in this low-oblique, north-looking photograph.
Istanbul formerly Constantinople , one of the great historic cities of the world, sits near the Bosporus entrance to the Sea of Marmara.
A view of Istanbul as taken from the International Space Station. The metropolis of 15 million occupies both sides of the entrance to the narrow, 32 km- 20 mi- long Bosporus Strait connecting the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara south, on the right to the Black Sea north, on the left.
When this image was taken, strong currents carried turbid coastal waters from the Black Sea through the Strait and into the Sea of Marmara.
The sinuous waterway and harbor on the western shore are known as the Golden Horn. Image courtesy of NASA.
The city of Gallipoli Gelibolu in Turkish; light gray to pink area in center of photo sits at a crossroads between the Sea of Marmara to the right and the Dardanelles Strait which leads to the Aegean Sea.
Water in the Strait flows in both northeast and southwest directions due to opposite surface and undercurrents. Several ships are visible in the Strait to the southwest of Gallipoli center left.
This image includes many of the islands of the East Aegean as well as part of mainland Turkey. The largest modern city in the Aegean coast is Izmir, Turkey, situated about one quarter of the image length from the top.
The city is the bright coastal area near the greenish waters of Izmir Bay and southeast of the roughly triangular-shaped island of Lesvos.
The lengthy island at the bottom of the photo is Crete. North of Crete, the small broken ring of islands are the remnants of the collapsed caldera of Santorini Volcano.
This northeast-looking view shows the Ataturk Reservoir and Dam, presently the largest man-made lake in Turkey. The meandering Euphrates River dark line can be seen exiting the scene below the left center of the image.
Smooth lake waters appear as dark blue, while wind-roughened waters appear light blue. The light area to the west of the dam left center is where rocks were quarried for the construction of the dam.
A southwest-looking photograph of south-central Turkey and northwest Syria. The Plain of Adana, an extensive agricultural region, is located northwest of the Gulf of Iskenderun the roughly rectangular-shaped gulf near the center of the photo and is irrigated by the Seyhan River.
Adana, the largest city in the region, can be seen midway between the Gulf and the Taurus Mountains to the west. The island of Cyprus can be seen off the Turkish and Syrian coasts.
Mount Ararat 5, m, 16, ft is the largest volcano in Turkey, but is not currently active. It is located in extreme northeastern Turkey, near the borders with Iran and Armenia.
Southwest of the main peak lies Lesser Ararat 3, m, 12, ft. Ahora Gorge is a northeast-trending chasm dropping from the top of the mountain.
A view of Mount Ararat in eastern Turkey through the fog. The highest of its two peaks, Greater Ararat, is the tallest mountain in Turkey at 5, m 16, ft.
This photo was snapped after take off from the Yerevan airport. Created by volcanic eruptions and shaped by centuries of wind and rain erosion, each of these structures consists of a soft cone topped by a layer of harder rock.
They reach heights of up to 40 m ft. Distinctively shaped volcanic cones in the Cappadocia region of Turkey were shaped by centuries of wind and rain erosion.
The soft rock is easily carved and hardens like concrete when exposed to the air. Many of these structures have been transformed into domestic dwellings.
Seagulls come to rest on one of the colorful fishing boats anchored on the shore of the Bosporus Strait in the heart of historic Istanbul. The Topkapi Palace courtyard in Istanbul.
The Palace was the official residence of the Ottoman Sultans for years. Construction was begun in , and at its height, the complex housed 4, people.
In , a governmental decree transformed the Palace into a museum of the imperial era. This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.
This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the centroid or center point of a country expressed in degrees and minutes; it is based on the locations provided in the Geographic Names Server GNS , maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency on behalf of the US Board on Geographic Names.
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The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries. This entry includes three subfields.
This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements revised provided by the US Bureau of the Census.
This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries.
When available, official lengths published by national statistical agencies are used. Because surveying methods may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ.
This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area including islands and the sea.
This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNCLOS , which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions: This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year.
This entry contains a brief description of the topography. This entry includes both the mean elevation and the elevation extremes. In general, products appear only if they make a significant contribution to the economy, or are likely to do so in the future.
This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water.
This entry provides a summary description of the population dispersion within a country. While it may suggest population density, it does not provide density figures.
This entry lists potential natural disasters. For countries where volcanic activity is common, a volcanism subfield highlights historically active volcanoes.
Environment - current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions see acid rain.
Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxi. Environment - international agreements: This entry separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed, but not ratified.
Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name. This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere.
This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends.
The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region.
Starting with the Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries mostly African have explicitly taken into account t. This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective.
This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population.
This entry provides a listing of languages spoken in each country and specifies any that are official national or regional languages. When data is available, the languages spoken in each country are broken down according to the percent of the total population speaking each language as a first language.
For those countries without available data, languages are listed in rank order based on prevalence, starting with the most-spoken language.
Turkish official , Kurdish, other minority languages. This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population.
Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace m. This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age.
Information is included by sex and age group as follows: Countries with young populations high percentage under age 15 need to invest more in schools, while countries with older population.
Impressionism, among the contemporary trends, appeared later on with Halil Pasha. The young Turkish artists sent to Europe in came back inspired by contemporary trends such as Fauvism, Cubism and even Expressionism, still very influential in Europe.
Carpet weaving represents a traditional art, dating back to pre-Islamic times. During its long history, the art and craft of the woven carpet has integrated different cultural traditions.
Traces of Byzantine design can be detected, Turkic peoples migrating from Central Asia, as well as Armenian people, Caucasian and Kurdic tribes either living in, or migrating to Anatolia, brought with them their traditional designs.
The arrival of Islam and the development of the Islamic art also influenced Turkish carpet design. The history of its designs, motifs and ornaments thus reflects the political and ethnic history and diversity of the area of Asia minor.
However, scientific attempts were unsuccessful, as yet, to attribute a particular design to a specific ethnic, regional, or even nomadic versus village tradition.
Turkish miniature is an art form, which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences. The words taswir or nakish were used to define the art of miniature painting in Ottoman Turkish.
The studios the artists worked in were called Nakkashanes. The head painter, and much more often the scribe of the text, were indeed named and depicted in some of the manuscripts.
The understanding of perspective was different from that of the nearby European Renaissance painting tradition, and the scene depicted often included different time periods and spaces in one picture.
They followed closely the context of the book they were included in, resembling more illustrations rather than standalone works of art. Several recipes in the text are accredited to this master.
Another famous 18th-century master by the name of Hatip Mehmed Efendi died is accredited with developing motifs and perhaps early floral designs, although evidence from India appears to contradict some of these claims.
Despite this, marbled motifs are commonly referred to as "Hatip" designs in Turkey today. Turkish literature is a mix of cultural influences.
Interaction between the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world along with Europe contributed to a blend of Turkic, Islamic and European traditions in modern-day Turkish music and literary arts.
The Tanzimat reforms introduced previously unknown Western genres, primarily the novel and the short story. Many of the writers in the Tanzimat period wrote in several genres simultaneously: Most of the roots of modern Turkish literature were formed between the years and Broadly, there were three primary literary movements during this period: The mix of cultural influences in Turkey is dramatised, for example, in the form of the "new symbols of the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the novels of Orhan Pamuk , recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature.
The origin of Turkish theatre dates back thousands of years to ancient pagan rituals. The dances, music and songs performed during the rituals of the inhabitants of Anatolia millennia ago are the elements from which the first shows originated.
These rituals later became theatrical shows. In the 10th century, a blend of traditions occurred between the Seljuk Turks and those of the inhabitants of Anatolia.
The interaction between the various tribal societies paved the way for new plays. After the Tanzimat Reformation period in the 19th century, characters in Turkish theatre were modernized and plays were performed on European-style stages with the actors wearing European costumes.
Following the restoration of constitutional monarchy with the Young Turk Revolution in , theatrical activities increased and social problems began to be reflected in the theatre as well as in historical plays.
Some wrote on romantic subjects, others were interested in social problems and still others dealt with nationalistic themes.
There were even those who wrote musicals. Today, theatre acts are performed by numerous private theatre companies and subsidized companies such as the Turkish State Theatres.
Music of Turkey includes mainly Turkic elements as well as partial influences ranging from Central Asian folk music , Arabic music , Greek music , Ottoman music , Persian music and Balkan music , as well as references to more modern European and American popular music.
The roots of traditional music in Turkey span across centuries to a time when the Seljuk Turks migrated to Anatolia and Persia in the 11th century and contains elements of both Turkic and pre-Turkic influences.
Much of its modern popular music can trace its roots to the emergence in the early s drive for Westernization. With the assimilation of immigrants from various regions the diversity of musical genres and musical instrumentation also expanded.
Turkey has also seen documented folk music and recorded popular music produced in the ethnic styles of Greek , Armenian , Albanian , Polish and Jewish communities, among others.
Many Turkish cities and towns have vibrant local music scenes which, in turn, support a number of regional musical styles.
Despite this however, western-style music styles like pop music and kanto lost popularity to arabesque in the late 70s and 80s. It became popular again by the beginning of the s, as a result of an opening economy and society.
With the support of Sezen Aksu , the resurging popularity of pop music gave rise to several international Turkish pop stars such as Tarkan and Sertab Erener.
The late s also saw an emergence of underground music producing alternative Turkish rock , electronica , hip-hop , rap and dance music in opposition to the mainstream corporate pop and arabesque genres, which many believe have become too commercial.
Turkey has a diverse folkloric dance culture. The architecture of the Seljuk Turks combined the elements and characteristics of the Turkic architecture of Central Asia with those of Persian , Arab , Armenian and Byzantine architecture.
The transition from Seljuk architecture to Ottoman architecture is most visible in Bursa , which was the capital of the Ottoman State between and Following the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople Istanbul in , Ottoman architecture was significantly influenced by Byzantine architecture.
He was the chief architect of at least buildings which were constructed in various provinces of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century.
Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine. In the early years of the Republic, a few studies were published about regional Anatolian dishes but cuisine did not feature heavily in Turkish folkloric studies until the s, when the fledgling tourism industry encouraged the Turkish state to sponsor two food symposia.
The papers submitted at the symposia presented the history of Turkish cuisine on a "historical continuum" that dated back to Turkic origins in Central Asia and continued through the Seljuk and Ottoman periods.
Many of the papers presented at these first two symposia were unreferenced. This book was based on recipes found in an 18th century Ottoman manuscript.
His second book was about palace cuisine during the reign of Mehmet II. Yogurt salads, fish in olive oil , sherbet and stuffed and wrapped vegetables became Turkish staples.
The empire, eventually spanning from Austria to northern Africa , used its land and water routes to import exotic ingredients from all over the world.
By the end of the 16th century, the Ottoman court housed over 1, live-in cooks and passed laws regulating the freshness of food.
Since the fall of the empire in World War I — and the establishment of the Turkish Republic in , foreign food such as French hollandaise sauce and western fast food have made their way into the modern Turkish diet.
The most popular sport in Turkey is association football soccer. Other mainstream sports such as basketball and volleyball are also popular.
The basketballing team is one of the most successful in the Mediterranean Games. Another Turkish basketball club, Anadolu Efes S.
They also won multiple medals over multiple decades at the Mediterranean Games. Hundreds of television channels, thousands of local and national radio stations, several dozen newspapers, a productive and profitable national cinema and a rapid growth of broadband Internet use all make up a very vibrant media industry in Turkey.
Of those licensed, 16 television and 36 radio stations reached national audiences. The broadcast media have a very high penetration as satellite dishes and cable systems are widely available.
Despite legal provisions, media freedom in Turkey has steadily deteriorated from onwards, with a precipitous decline following the attempted coup in July Ranking 1st in the world, all of them facing anti-state charges, in the wake of an unprecedented crackdown that has included the shuttering of more than news outlets.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article contains too many pictures, charts or diagrams for its overall length.
See the Manual of Style on use of images. Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article is about the country. For the bird, see Turkey bird.
For other uses, see Turkey disambiguation. Country spanning Western Asia and Southeastern Europe. Republic in Western Asia.
Turkish Kurmanji Arabic Zaza Kabardian various others. Turks Kurds Arabs Laz various others. History of Anatolia and History of Thrace.
Prehistory of Anatolia and Prehistory of Southeastern Europe. Ancient Anatolians , Ancient kingdoms of Anatolia , and Thracians.
The gymnasium of Sardis , capital of ancient Lydia c. Classical Anatolia and Hellenistic period. Designed by Greek architect Zeno, a native of the city, the Aspendos amphitheatre was built during the Roman period in — CE.
Mount Nemrut , sometimes called the masoleum of Antiochus I Theos of Commagene , is notable for its summit where a number of large statues are erected around what is assumed to be a royal tomb from the 1st century BC.
Early Christianity and Byzantine Anatolia. Successors of the Byzantine Empire and States in late medieval Anatolia. Seljuk dynasty and Ottoman dynasty.
History of the Republic of Turkey. Administrative divisions of Turkey. Human rights in Turkey. Judicial system of Turkey and Law enforcement in Turkey.
Foreign relations of Turkey. Defense industry of Turkey. Flora and vegetation of Turkey and Wildlife of Turkey.
Environmental issues in Turkey. Turkish currency and debt crisis, Beko and Vestel are among the largest producers of consumer electronics and home appliances in Europe.
Economic history of Turkey. Science and technology in Turkey. Turkish people , Minorities in Turkey , and Turkification. List of high schools in Turkey and List of universities in Turkey.
Health care in Turkey. List of hospitals in Turkey. Arts in Turkey , Turkish folklore , and Festivals in Turkey. Turkish literature and Theatre of Turkey.
Turkish dance and Music of Turkey. Turkish classical music , Turkish folk music , and Turkish music style. Turkish folk dancers at the annual Chicago Turkish Festival .
Byzantine architecture , Seljuk architecture , and Ottoman architecture. The Grand Post Office — in Istanbul and the first Ziraat Bank headquarters — in Ankara are among the examples of Turkish Neoclassical architecture in the early 20th century.
An layer dough baklava. Media in Turkey and Cinema of Turkey. Turkey portal Mediterranean portal. We will never accept the accusations of genocide".
Furthermore, anyone who was not officially registered as Christian or Jewish by the time of the foundation of the republic, was automatically recorded as Muslim, and this label has been passed down to new generations.
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Turkey participated to the Eurovision Song Contest in the eighties incessantly. And had their best result until in the Eurovision Song Contest , when Klips ve Onlar placed 9th with the total of 53 points in Bergen , Norway.
The country scored "nul points" for two times in the eighties also, one in shared with Spain and the other one in After the free language rule was re-introduced in , the first Turkish entry to be partially sung in English, was at the contest.
Turkey reached to the top ten second time since and first time to the top three, so that was the most successful result that the country ever had in the Eurovision Song Contest until their victory in Turkey participated all the series of the contest in nineties except the edition , which they relegated from participating because of their 21st place in From the late s to early s, with the participation of the other Eastern European countries and the victory of Sertab Erener with the song " Everyway That I Can ", the Contest has grown into one of the most popular events in Turkey.
Following the introduction of televoting in , first trialled in and first used by Turkey in Turkey went on to achieve eight top ten results in the contest, having previously made the top ten in and The contest was held in the Abdi Ipekci Arena , with the first ever semifinal held on Wednesday 12 May, followed by the final on Saturday 15 May.
From , Turkey had seven songs sung in English and four sung in both English and Turkish, with just two and being sung entirely in Turkish.
In Turkey participated to the Eurovision Song Contest for last time so far with the song " Love Me Back " completely sung in English by newcoming artist Can Bonomo , which qualified and placed 7th in the final with points.
TRT announced their withdrawal from the Eurovision Song Contest on 14 December , citing dissatisfaction with the rules of the competition and has yet to return.
Prior to , the Turkish entry was performed without orchestral accompaniment in Sertab in the opening of the Contest. Hadise at Moscow From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
In the beginning TRT selected an entry via a national final but the Arab countries which are the Eastern neighbours of Turkey compelled the government withdraw from the Contest because of Arabs state of war with the host country, Israel.
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